Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in the Patients Attending A Public Hospital In Central Malaysia – A Descriptive Study From A Single Centre

Cheng Jin Yu, Yasotha Sugumaran, Mustafa Alshagga, Pan Yan


Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). This study aimed to investigate demographic profiles, clinical presentations, complications, and treatment of IBD at a public hospital (Hospital Serdang), Malaysia. 

Methods: This retrospective study reviewed data of 58 IBD patients at Hospital Serdang in Malaysia between January 2006 and December 2017.

Result: There was slight female predominance for UC, but equal sex distribution for CD. Both patients mostly presented chronic diarrhoea. 41.7% UC patients had left sided colitis. 40.0% CD patients were colonic. Significant association (p<0.05) was identified between smoking and the behaviour of CD, anaemia and albumin counts with IBD, anaemia and occurrence of complications in UC, ethnicity and affected sites of UC.

Conclusion: Low prevalence of IBD was found in Malaysia. However, the incidence appeared to be on a rise, which should alert all health care workers’ professional awareness.


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn’s disease (CD), clinical presentations, Malaysia

Full Text:



Goh K, Xiao S-D. Inflammatory bowel disease: A survey of the epidemiology in Asia. J Dig Dis. 2009;10(1):1-6. doi:10.1111/j.1751-2980.2008.00355.x

Louise L, Peter I. Inflammatory Bowel Disease. 1st ed. New York: United Nations: Oxford University Press; 2008.

Xia B, Crusius J, Meuwissen S, Pena A. Inflammatory bowel disease: definition, epidemiology, etiologic aspects, and immunogenetic studies. World J Gastroenterol. 1998;4(5):446-458. Accessed July 19, 2017.

Vavricka SR, Schoepfer A, Scharl M, Lakatos PL, Navarini A, Rogler G. Extraintestinal Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015;21(8):1982-1992. doi:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000392

Molodecky NA, Soon IS, Rabi DM, et al. Increasing incidence and prevalence of the inflammatory bowel diseases with time, based on systematic review. Gastroenterology. 2012;142(1):46-54.e42. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.10.001

Hilmi I, Jaya F, Chua A, Heng WC, Singh H, Goh K-L. A First Study on the Incidence and Prevalence of IBD in Malaysia--Results From the Kinta Valley IBD Epidemiology Study. J Crohn’s Colitis. 2015;9(5):404-409. doi:10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjv039

Goh K-L. Emerging Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Asia Pacific. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2017;51(6):479-485. doi:10.1097/MCG.0000000000000847

Satsangi J, Silverberg MS, Vermeire S, Colombel J-F. The Montreal classification of inflammatory bowel disease: controversies, consensus, and implications. Gut. 2006;55(6):749-753. doi:10.1136/gut.2005.082909

Lok K-H, Hung H-G, Ng C-H, et al. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of ulcerative colitis in Chinese population: experience from a single center in Hong Kong. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23(3):406-410. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2007.05079.x

Hanauer SB. Inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic opportunities. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006;12 Suppl 1:S3-9. Accessed July 19, 2017.

Ng SC, Tang W, Ching JY, et al. Incidence and Phenotype of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Based on Results From the Asia-Pacific Crohn’s and Colitis Epidemiology Study. Gastroenterology. 2013;145(1):158-165.e2. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2013.04.007

Mahid SS, Minor KS, Soto RE, Hornung CA, Galandiuk S. Smoking and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81(11):1462-1471. doi:10.4065/81.11.1462

Bernstein CN, Wajda A, Svenson LW, et al. The Epidemiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canada: A Population-Based Study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101(7):1559-1568. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2006.00603.x

Current Population Estimates, Malaysia, 2014 - 2016.; 2016. Accessed July 19, 2017.


Stallmach A, Hagel S, Gharbi A, et al. Medical and surgical therapy of inflammatory bowel disease in the elderly — Prospects and complications. J Crohn’s Colitis. 2011;5(3):177-188. doi:10.1016/j.crohns.2011.02.001

Wang YF, Zhang H, Ouyang Q. Clinical manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: East and West differences. J Dig Dis. 2007;8(3):121-127. doi:10.1111/j.1443-9573.2007.00296.x

Karczewski J, Poniedzialek B, Rzymski P, Rychlewska-Hańczewska A, Adamski Z, Wiktorowicz K. The effect of cigarette smoking on the clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease. Prz Gastroenterol. 2014;9(3):153-159. doi:10.5114/pg.2014.43577

Alreheili K, Almehaidib A, Banemi M, Aldekhail W, Alsaleem K. Clinical presentation of inflammatory bowel disease in Saudi children (Single centre experience). Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2016;3(4):175-179. doi:10.1016/j.ijpam.2016.08.004

Wade JR, Parker G, Kosutic G, et al. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of certolizumab pegol in patients with Crohn’s disease. J Clin Pharmacol. 2015;55(8):866-874. doi:10.1002/jcph.491

Holtman GA, Lisman-van Leeuwen Y, Day AS, et al. Use of laboratory markers in addition to symptoms for diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in children: A meta-analysis of individual patient data. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(10):984-991. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1736

Pang P, Ng YS, Sidhu J, Kok M. Epidemiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Southern Peninsular Malaysia. Med J Malaysia. 2018;73(2):86-89. Accessed June 14, 2018.

Burger D, Travis S. Conventional Medical Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterology. 2011;140(6):1827-1837.e2. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.02.045

Tae CH, Jung S-A, Moon HS, et al. Importance of Patients’ Knowledge of Their Prescribed Medication in Improving Treatment Adherence in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2016;50(2):157-162. doi:10.1097/MCG.0000000000000431

Kim BJ, Yang SK, Kim JS, et al. Trends of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer in Korea: A KASID study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24(4):667-671. Accessed July 19, 2017.

Ng WK, Wong SH, Ng SC. Changing epidemiological trends of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia. Intest Res. 2016;14(2):111. doi:10.5217/ir.2016.14.2.111

Lenti MV, Selinger CP. Medication non-adherence in adult patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease: a critical review and update of the determining factors, consequences and possible interventions. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;11(3):1-12. doi:10.1080/17474124.2017.1284587

Karban A, Eliakim R. Effect of smoking on inflammatory bowel disease: Is it disease or organ specific? World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13(15):2150-2152. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i15.2150

Bernstein CN, Kraut A, Blanchard JF, Rawsthorne P, Yu N, Walld R. The relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and socioeconomic variables. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(7):2117-2125. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2001.03946.x

Cioffi M, Rosa A De, Serao R, Picone I, Vietri MT. Laboratory markers in ulcerative colitis: Current insights and future advances. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2015;6(1):13-22. doi:10.4291/wjgp.v6.i1.13